Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. (BDS, www.bdsltd.com) and its subsidiaries Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc. (Online-Testing, www.online-testing.com) and Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc. (Risk & Needs, www.riskandneeds.com) assessment instruments or tests are presented on this website.
Our Mission Statement
Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc. (Online Testing) was founded in 2002 and after two years of research & development was brought online in 2004 with the same mission it has today: To provide qualified evaluators, assessors and screeners sound assessment instruments or tests that are affordable with convenient online access. Our goal at Online Testing is to provide tests that will help evaluators better meet their assessment needs.
To ensure that our tests meet the highest professional standards, Online Testing contracted with Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. (BDS) to be their exclusive online (Internet) test provider. Most experts agree that the most valuable asset (and only true competitive advantage) any online testing company has is the quality of the tests it offers. BDS has an impressive reputation that has been built test-by-test over the past 20 years. These solid tests provide the foundation upon which Online Testing built its online testing platform.
Our Internet Platform
Online Testing was created to better meet evaluator needs. Our goal was to offer tests with proven quality and concurrently to eliminate the need for evaluators to maintain expensive test inventories. To achieve these goals we developed a state-of-the-art Internet testing platform and partnered with BDS in order to use their superior tests. Largely because of the testing platform's speed in handling test selection, test purchases, test administration and scoring, there is no longer a need for test users to backlog tests for future use. Our Online-Testing program is available 24 hours a day; 7 days a week (including holidays), so that evaluators can purchase the tests they need - when they need them.
Online Testing offers a variety of evidence based online tests for different patient, client, defendant and offender groups. In addition, it has committed to bringing all BDS tests. Each of these tests is empirically- (research) based and facilitates "assessment driven treatment." We believe it is important to identify problems and their severity before formulating treatment plans. Moreover, each of these tests has a built-in Truthfulness Scale that determines how truthful the client was when tested. These tests are also HIPAA compliant and ASAM compatible. We offer more tests online than any other Internet psychological test publishing company.
Affordable testing is an integral part of our Mission Statement. Our $9.95 (U.S. currency) test unit fee is all-inclusive. There is just one fee which includes test administration, test booklets, answer sheets, account maintenance, training manuals, ongoing research, summary reports, support services, access to all of our online tests and more. Volume testing discounts (over 500 tests a year) are available. Our commitment to affordable online testing is authentic and sincere.
Test users are encouraged to delete client names when their assessment process is completed. This proprietary "name deletion" procedure involves a few keystrokes. Once names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved. Deleting names does not delete demographics or test data which is downloaded into a database for subsequent analysis. This name deletion procedure ensures confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501) requirements.
The "Delete Client Name" option is provided on the "Supervisor Options" section of the test's webpage. To delete the client's name, log in and navigate to the test that the client has taken. On that test's main menu, click on that client's name and then click the "Supervisor Options" button. On the Supervisor Options page, click on the "Delete Client Name" button and then click on the "Continue" button. When this step is completed, the test report will no longer be available for review or printing.
This proprietary software feature is provided to give Online Testing customers client confidentiality at no additional cost. It is the test user's responsibility to delete the client's name, thereby ensuring that they are HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R 164.501) compliant.
American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM)
ASAM provides patient placement criteria for the treatment of substance-related disorders, 2nd Edition (ASAM, PPC-2).
To increase the effectiveness of patient's substance (alcohol and other drugs) abuse care and to foster the development of universally accepted patient placement criteria, ASAM published the "ASAM Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders." These criteria have been accepted by many evaluators and mental health professionals. In the public sector, some states are requiring that providers and managed care companies within these states use the ASAM criteria. However, it should be noted that ASAM Criteria are not universally accepted by evaluators and mental health professionals.
There is sentiment that ASAM is not "universally accepted." Some mental health professionals are of the opinion that ASAM escalates its recommendations for inpatient treatment too rapidly. Others argue that a "universally accepted" patient placement criteria is too "rigid" and "limiting", and many patient's substance abuse-related problems require individualized consideration.
ASAM requires organizations to submit hard copy print or guidelines to the ASAM Criteria Committee for review and approval. ASAM charges a review fee for guideline review and a license fee or royalties will be charged for the use of ASAM "criteria."
Since ASAM will not authorize the incorporation of "ASAM Criteria" in whole or in part into non-ASAM-owned and copyrighted software, Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc. does not attempt to present or impose ASAM criteria beyond noting that many of ASAM's criteria are generic, all-inclusive and sweeping in nature. And it is these all-encompassing recommendations that Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc. refers to when it states that its substance (alcohol and other drugs) abuse recommendations are ASAM compatible. Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc. does agree with ASAM that "problem severity" is an important consideration when deciding upon treatment intensity.
The following observations are simply ASAM quotes that were abstracted for clarity:
"Within the context of DSM-5 classification of substance abuse, ASAM notes there are exceptions to ASAM's recommended levels of care and these exceptions are based on symptom severity.
Continuing, treatment within any level of care may be modified according to the severity of a client's substance (alcohol or other drugs) abuse condition.
Individuals must meet DSM-5 criteria for substance abuse "or other standardized and widely accepted criteria, but whose symptoms are severe enough to warrant assessment."
ASAM continues, noting that treatment within any level of care may be modified according to the severity of the client's substance (alcohol and other drugs) - related condition.
Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc. is committed to protecting client (respondent) privacy. We work diligently to protect confidentiality, restrict transfer of personal data, incorporate technical safeguards adhere to appropriate security policies, and identify privacy implications in new services.
Information Collection: Our website may log a user's IP address, browser type and version, dial-up domain, and computer operating system when they visit our site, but does not retain this information. We use the tracked information to help diagnose problems with our server and to administer our website. Our website uses an order form for customers to purchase our products and services. We collect customers' contact information (such as their address and email address). We DO NOT collect or save any financial information (such as credit card numbers). A valid certificate for conducting Internet commerce has been issued by Verisign, Inc. to Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc. for this purpose. Contact information from the order form is used to send confirmation of orders to our customers. We may also provide future mailings regarding product information and releases. We may also conduct surveys during which similar information will be collected and used for the same purposes listed above. We reserve the right to aggregate or compile and use data obtained from the scoring of our assessments, and to utilize this data for research, product development, and statistical analysis. This data is only used in aggregate and never is associated with any individual's identity.
Cookies: Our website uses "cookies". Cookies are small data files that certain websites write to a user's hard drive during a visit. Users have the choice to accept, reject or be notified when a site sets a cookie by configuring their browser preferences.
Disclosure of information collected: We do not sell, trade, rent or otherwise give to any other entity or organization the individual information our customers submit when placing an order or taking an instrument or test on our site. Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc. may release account information when we believe, in good faith, that such release is reasonably necessary to: (I) comply with the law; (II) enforce or apply the terms of any of our user agreements; or (III) protect the rights, property or safety of Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc., our staff, users, or others.
Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc. encourages test users to delete client names when their evaluations are done. This proprietary "name deletion" procedure ensures client confidentiality and full compliance with HIPPA (Federal Regulation 45 C.F.R 164.501). Once a client's name is deleted, it CANNOT be restored.
UNIQUE ONLINE TESTING FEATURES
This page discusses Online Testing features that we believe make this online (Internet) testing website unique. Many of these defining or distinctive features are cited below.
SPECIFIC TESTS FOR SPECIFIC CLIENT GROUPS
In addition to alcohol and drugs, Professional Online Testing Solutions, Inc. (Online-Testing.com) tests gather other valuable information. All Online-Testing.com tests contain a Truthfulness Scale to determine the amount of test taker denial, minimization and faking. And, each test varies according to the client population being evaluated. Online-Testing.com has different tests for different client populations and different evaluation purposes. Consequently, Online-Testing.com tests measure important behaviors missed by other tests. Online-Testing.com tests are designed for drug courts, adult and juvenile general population courts, probation departments, corrections (prisons), parole departments, sex offender evaluations, DUI/DWI offender screening, violence (lethality) assessment, anger management programs, shoplifter testing, substance abuse treatment, clinical programs, intake screening, patient assessment as needed, counseling programs and other assessment settings. Visit the Online-Testing.com' Available Tests page for more specific information on tests that you may be interested in.
Online Testing's Role
The physician metaphor helps put automated online (Internet) testing in perspective. Family physicians ask about a patient's symptoms. Then they usually have the patient complete some tests like an EKG, blood tests, urine analysis, x-rays and MRI's. The physician then uses his education, experience and training to review the "lab work" and then diagnoses the patient's problems. In this analogy, the evaluator might identify with the doctor. Moreover, the assessment test would be comparable to the physician ordered tests or lab work cited earlier. Online Testing's assessment instruments identify client problems and concurrently measure their severity. This information facilitates problem recognition, counseling/treatment referral and matching problem severity with treatment intensity. Online Testing's tests can also contribute as an objective second opinion.
Two Test Administration Options
Most Online Testing is done with hard copy paper-pencil test booklets and answer sheets. How to Print Test Booklets & Answer Sheets provides clear and concise instructions. Paper-Pencil testing allows for group testing and does not tie up your computer. Upon test completion, staff inputs data over the Internet for scoring and printing reports on their printer.
Tests can also be administered on the computer while online. Upon test completion staff can immediately score and print reports over the Internet. This procedure is fast and all functions (test administration, scoring, and printing reports) are completed within 3 minutes while on the Internet.
Reliability, Validity and Accuracy
Each BDS test must have impressive reliability, validity, and accuracy to be selected and included in Online Testing's menu or list of available tests. Database analysis then insures ongoing research for each Online Testing test.
All tests administered on Online Testing's Internet testing platform have a built-in database that saves test data and demographic information. However, the client's name is deleted to maintain compliance with HIPAA requirements and protect client confidentiality. Test data (true-false or multiple choice answers) is saved and automatically stored in the tests database for future research and summary reports. Tests can then be researched on an ongoing database analysis schedule.
There are many terms that address the notion of truthfulness within the context of assessment, treatment and rehabilitation, including denial, problem minimization, misrepresentation and equivocation. The prevalence of denial among patients and offenders is extensively discussed in the psychological literature (Marshall, Thornton, Marshall, Fernandez, & Mann, 2001; Brake & Shannon, 1997; Barbaree, 1991; Schlank & Shaw, 1996). The impact the Truthfulness Scale score has on other scales or test scores is contingent upon the severity of denial or untruthfulness. In assessment, socially desirable responding impacts assessment results when respondents attempt to portray themselves in an overly favorable light (Blanchett, Robinson, Alksnis & Sarin, 1997).
Truthfulness Scale awareness increased with the release of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), arguably one of the most widely used personality tests in the United States. Soon thereafter, socially-desirable responding was demonstrated to impact assessment results (Stoeber, 2001; McBurney, 1994; Alexander, Somerfield & Ensminger, 1993; Paulhus, 1991). Truthfulness Scale conceptualization began in earnest with the idea of self-response accuracy. Test users want to be sure that respondents’ self-report answers are truthful or accurate. Evaluators and assessors need to know if they can rely upon the reported test data being accurate. In other words, can the respondent’s (patient or offender’s) self-report answers be trusted? Research shows that truthfulness is also an important factor in diagnosis, treatment effectiveness and recidivism.
Client (patient or offender) truthfulness has been associated with more positive treatment outcomes (Barber, et. al., 2001). Denial often accompanies lack of accountability, lack of motivation to change, resistance and general uncooperativeness (Simpson 2004). Problem minimization has also been linked to lack of treatment progress (Murphy & Baxter, 1997); treatment dropout (Daly & Peloski, 2000; Evans, Libo & Hser, 2009); and offender recidivism (Nunes, Hanson, Firestone, Moulden, Greenberg & Bradford, 2007; Kropp, Hart, Webster & Eaves, 1995; Grann & Wedin, 2002). Some researchers have suggested that client denial should be eliminated prior to commencing treatment. Denial reduction methods include use of survivor reports, directed group work, or addressing cognitive distortions that may cause denial (Schneider & Wright, 2004).
Invariably, assessors (evaluators, test users) must answer the questions, was the client (patient, offender) truthful while being tested? Can we rely on the test results? Evidence-based truthfulness scales answer these questions.
The "interview" has been the mainstay in evaluations for many years despite its paradoxical lack of reliability, validity and accuracy. Most mental health professionals agree that the interview has not been a good predictive instrument, and that it is notoriously time consuming. Most practitioners believe the interview by itself does not present a defensible basis for making diagnostic and treatment decisions. Interviews are prone to error and the reasons are many, owing to diversity in interviewer personalities and in training and equivocal motivation. Interviewers must repeat, paraphrase and probe for scoreable answers, thereby introducing subjectivity and error.
Each Online Testing test has Truth-Corrected scale scores which have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary Truth-Correction process is comparable to the MMPI K-scale correction. Each test's Truthfulness Scale is correlated with the other test scales. The Truth-Correction equation then converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect what the client wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the client is trying to hide.
Matching Problem Severity with Treatment Intensity
All Behavior Data Systems (BDS) tests scales measure the severity of identified problems so evaluators can match problem severity with counseling or treatment program intensity. Matching problem severity with treatment program intensity is important in that it facilitates more effective treatment program outcomes. Stated another way, this problem severity matching with treatment intensity is important for treatment program success.
Reading Impaired Assessment
Reading impaired clients represent 20+ percent of the clients tested. This represents a serious problem to many tests. Online Testing offers Human Voice Audio to help alleviate this problem.
Human Voice Audio
A client's passive vocabularies (what they hear) is often greater than their active (spoken) vocabularies. Hearing items read aloud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems. Test items are also read out loud in other languages, e.g., English, Spanish, Chinese or Russian. This test administration mode requires earphones/speakers, and simple instructions to orient the client to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio provides an alternative approach for evaluating reading impaired clients.
Delete Client Names
To insure confidentiality and full compliance with HIPAA (Federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501), Online Testing developed a "delete names" software program that allows evaluators to delete the name of the person that took the test from all test-related files. Demographics such as age, education, and ethnicity are retained for future database analysis, while client confidentiality is completely protected. This proprietary delete names procedure involves depressing a few keyboard keys. For detailed instructions, click on the "How to . . ." link on the left.
Annual Summary Reports
Each Online-Testing test has its own proprietary built-in database which accumulates answer sheet demographics and test data (answers) for each test that is administered. Utilization of the "delete names" feature protects client confidentiality and insures full compliance with HIPAA (Federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501). These procedures enable Online Testing to summarize a test's cumulative database for department, state, province, agency, and provider reports. Typically, a report is provided free to agencies/individuals that administer over 500 tests per year. These annual reports are test specific. Sometimes several departments, agencies and test providers' test data are combined for analysis. This procedure can provide a more comprehensive database pool.
Data Input Scoring Accuracy
When tests are administered in the paper-pencil format, staff manually inputs test answers for online scoring. Online Testing utilizes a proprietary "data input verification" procedure to insure accuracy. In brief, test data is input twice. If any inconsistencies between the two data inputs of the same test data (answers) occur, the inconsistencies are highlighted until corrected. Moreover, the scoring sequence will not advance until all inconsistencies are corrected. As inconsistencies are corrected, highlighting disappears and the scoring process can continue. This data input verification procedure is voluntary, but highly recommended by Online Testing.
In summary, all BDS tests and their websites are presented on www.tests-websites.com. Websites are presented three ways: 1. Alphabetically, 2. Adult Tests and 3. Juvenile Tests. Most, if not all, tests are available in Windows (diskettes or USB flash drives) and over the Internet (online). All of our online (Internet) tests are available on www.online-testing.com. Each test research and publications are set forth on www.bds-research.com.
Our offices are open 7:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. (Mountain Standard Time), Mondays through Fridays. Our email address is firstname.lastname@example.org, and our toll free telephone number is 1 (800) 231-2401.
Alexander, C., Somerfield, M., Ensminger, M., et al. (1993). Consistency of adolescents’ self-report of sexual behavior in a longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence; 25, 1379-95.
Barbaree, H. E. (1991). Denial and minimization among sex offenders: Assessment and treatment outcome. Forum on Corrections Research, 3, 30-33.
Barber, J., Luborsky, L., Gallop, R., Crits-Christoph, P., Frank, A., Weiss, R., Thase, M., Connolly, M., Gladis, M., Foltz, C., Siqueland, L.(2001). Therapeutic alliance as a predictor of outcome and retention in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2001; 69(1):119–124.
Blanchette, K. Robinson, D., Alksnis, C., Serin, R. (1997). Assessing Treatment Outcome Among Family Violence Offenders: Reliability and Validity of a Domestic Violence Treatment Assessment Battery. Ottawa: Research Branch, Correctional Service Canada.
Daly, J. & Pelowski, S. (2000). Predictors of dropout among men who batter: A review of studies with implications for research and practice. Violence and Victims, 15, 137-160. [Abstract].
Evans, E. Libo, L. Hser, Y. (2009). Client and program factors associated with dropout from court-mandated drug treatment. Eval Program Plann. 2009 August; 32 (3) 204-212.
Grann, M. & Wedin, I. (2002). Risk factors for recidivism among spousal assault and spousal homicide offenders. Psychology, Crime, and Law, 8, 5-23.
Kropp, P.R., Hart, S.D., Webster, C.D., & Eaves, D. (1995). Manual for the Spousal Assault Risk Assessment Guide (2nd ed.). Vancouver, Canada: B.C. Institute on Family Violence.
Marshall, W., Thornton, D., Marshall, L., Fernandez, Y., & Mann, R. (2001). Treatment of sexual offenders who are in categorical denial: A pilot project. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 13(3), 205-215.
McBurney D., (1994) Research Methods. Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, California.
Murphy, C. & Baxter, V. (1997). Motivating batterers to change in the treatment context. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 607-619.
Nunes, K., Hanson, R., Firestone, P., Moulden, H., Greenberg, D., Bradford, J. (2007). Denial predicts recidivism for some sexual offenders. Sex Abuse, 19 (2): 91-105.
Paulhus, D.(1991). Measurement and control of response biases. In J.P. Robinson et al. (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. San Diego: Academic Press
Schlank, A.& Shaw, T. (1996). Treating sexual offenders who deny their guilt: A pilot study. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 8(1), 17-23.
Schneider, S. & Wright, R. (2004). Understanding Denial in Sexual Offenders: A review of cognitive and motivational processes to avoid responsibility. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, Vol. 5 (1); 3-20. Sage Publications.
Simpson D. (2004). A conceptual framework for drug abuse treatment process and outcomes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 2004; 27(2):99–121.
Stoeber, J. (2001). The social desirability scale-17 (SD-17). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 17, 222-232.